Saturday, December 20, 2008

FreeBusy In/Out Board for Exchange 2007 using EWS and Powershell

Update version see here

Firstly this isn't a new idea there's been a similar script on CDO live for years that uses CDO 1.2. I've had a couple of people ask about doing this in Powershell and EWS using the new availability service on 2007 so here it is.

How does it work

To get the Free/Busy status of another mailbox in Exchange you need to make use of the getuseravailability operation in EWS. To be able to query another users availability you must have been granted rights to the free/busy information for that users Mailbox by default the default ACL gives users the right to see Free/Busy availability but not the newer Subject and Location information made available in 2007. To change the default Free/Busy Permission you can use something like this post A more granular approach would be to assign these rights to a specific user or group eg something like this would add a group to calendar if it didn't exist

$mbMailboxEmail = ""
$GrouptoAdd = ""
$exists = $false
$calutil = new-object EWSUtil.CalendarUtil($mbMailboxEmail,$false, "username","password","domain",$null)
for ($cpint=0;$cpint -lt $calutil.CalendarDACL.Count; $cpint++){
if ($calutil.CalendarDACL[$cpint].UserId.DistinguishedUserSpecified -ne $true){
$sidbind = "LDAP://&ltsid=">"
$AceName = $ace.IdentityReference.Value
$aceuser = [ADSI]$sidbind
if ($aceuser.objectClass[1] -eq "group"){
if ($aceuser.mail -eq $GrouptoAdd){$exists = $true}
if($exists -eq $false){
"Group Doesn't Exist Adding"
"Group Exists Do Nothing"

Okay once you have the permissions sorted you can look at actually querying the free/busy information. To do this I've wrapped a few methods that do this using some EWS code in my EWSUtil powershell library so once you've made a connection to the mailbox all you need is to fire the method with firstly an array of mailbox email addresses you want to include in you FB board the duration which consists of the start and end time and the last parameter is the granularity for the Free/Busy time slot eg 60,30 or 15 minutes. So a example of this if you wanted to produce a freeBusy board that create a board for 8:30 to 5:00 with a 30 minute slot period you would need something like this

$drDuration = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.Duration
$drDuration.StartTime = [DateTime]::Parse([DateTime]::Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd 08:30"))
$drDuration.EndTime = [DateTime]::Parse([DateTime]::Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd 17:30"))
$fbents = $ewc.GetAvailiblity($mbs, $drDuration, 30)

This would produce something that look like this

Actually thats jumping ahead a little we also need some code to generate a String array of Mailbox email addressses to use with the GetAvailiblity method. There are several methods to do this using a custom ADSI query, Group Membership or using Get-Mailbox with a specific filter. The limitaiton here is that you need to limit that array you feed into the method to no more then 100 mailboxes. An example of using Get-Mailbox to build an array would look like

$mbHash = @{ }

get-mailbox | foreach-object{
if ($mbHash.ContainsKey($_.WindowsEmailAddress.ToString()) -eq $false){
$mbs = @()
foreach($key in $mbHash.keys){
$mbs += $key

The second hashtable I use later to map email address's back to display names.

What the method returns is a nested hashtable for the slots you requested with the Subject and Location information indexed to each of the time slot. I've used the Time and Location information as Mouse over titles in the above board so for example when you mouse over a cetain table cell you will get information about that segment eg

Okay thats it some relatively simple powershell code does the color mapping and exporting to a Html file. I've put a download of the script here. To use this script you need to use the latest EWSUtil Powershell library which you can download from For more information on using the library and connection and authentication options this is documented in another post. The code itself looks like


$casUrl = "https://servername/ews/exchange.asmx"
$mbHash = @{ }

get-mailbox | foreach-object{
if ($mbHash.ContainsKey($_.WindowsEmailAddress.ToString()) -eq $false){
$mbs = @()
foreach($key in $mbHash.keys){
$mbs += $key

$ewc = new-object EWSUtil.EWSConnection($mbMailboxEmail,$false, "usernames", "password", "domain",$casUrl)
$drDuration = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.Duration
$drDuration.StartTime = [DateTime]::Parse([DateTime]::Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd 08:30"))
$drDuration.EndTime = [DateTime]::Parse([DateTime]::Now.ToString("yyyy-MM-dd 17:30"))
$fbents = $ewc.GetAvailiblity($mbs, $drDuration, 30)
$frow = $true
foreach($key in $fbents.keys){
if ($frow -eq $true){
$fbBoard = $fbBoard + "<table><tr bgcolor=`"#95aedc`">" +"`r`n"
$fbBoard = $fbBoard + "<td align=`"center`" style=`"width=200;`" ><b>User</b></td>" +"`r`n"
for($stime = $drDuration.StartTime;$stime -lt $drDuration.EndTime;$stime = $stime.AddMinutes(30)){
$fbBoard = $fbBoard + "<td align=`"center`" style=`"width=50;`" ><b>" + $stime.ToString("HH:mm") + "</b></td>" +"`r`n"
$fbBoard = $fbBoard + "</tr>" + "`r`n"
$frow = $false
for($stime = $drDuration.StartTime;$stime -lt $drDuration.EndTime;$stime = $stime.AddMinutes(30)){
$valuehash = $fbents[$key]
if ($stime -eq $drDuration.StartTime){
$fbBoard = $fbBoard + "<td bgcolor=`"#CFECEC`"><b>" + $mbHash[$valuehash[$stime.ToString("HH:mm")].MailboxEmailAddress.ToString()] + "</b></td>" + "`r`n"
"0" {$bgColour = "bgcolor=`"#41A317`""}
"1" {$bgColour = "bgcolor=`"#52F3FF`""}
"2" {$bgColour = "bgcolor=`"#153E7E`""}
"3" {$bgColour = "bgcolor=`"#4E387E`""}
"4" {$bgColour = "bgcolor=`"#98AFC7`""}
"N/A" {$bgColour = "bgcolor=`"#98AFC7`""}
$title = "title="
if ($valuehash[$stime.ToString("HH:mm")].FBSubject -ne $null){
if ($valuehash[$stime.ToString("HH:mm")].FBLocation -ne $null){
$title = $title + "`"" + $valuehash[$stime.ToString("HH:mm")].FBSubject.ToString() + " " + $valuehash[$stime.ToString("HH:mm")].FBLocation.ToString() + "`" "
else {
$title = $title + "`"" + $valuehash[$stime.ToString("HH:mm")].FBSubject.ToString() + "`" "
else {
if ($valuehash[$stime.ToString("HH:mm")].FBLocation -ne $null){
$title = $title + "`"" + $valuehash[$stime.ToString("HH:mm")].FBLocation.ToString() + "`" "
if($title -ne "title="){
$fbBoard = $fbBoard + "<td " + $bgColour + " " + $title + "></td>" + "`r`n"
$fbBoard = $fbBoard + "<td " + $bgColour + "></td>" + "`r`n"

$fbBoard = $fbBoard + "</tr>" + "`r`n"

$fbBoard = $fbBoard + "</table>" + " "
$fbBoard | out-file "c:\fbboard.htm"

Sunday, December 07, 2008

Importing and Synchronizing Contacts from a CSV (Outlook Express Export) into Exchange 2007 (private Contacts Folder or Public Contacts Folder) using

Following on from last week I’m going to put the Sync function I created into use and also show you how to create a contact in Powershell with a few lines of code using some wrappered EWS code I’ve put into my EWSUtil powershell library. I’ve also include some code to create a grouped list of contacst flagged with a custom property to allow full sync eg create if don’t exist create , delete if deleted from the syncfile and do property level changes if phone, address of name information is modified. I’ve used a csv file generated by doing an export in Outlook Express but this could be any csv file from any source.
Before we can use this process we need to set the target folder to where the contacts will be imported to or where the contacts we are going to sync with are located. For a local users contact folder something like this is needed.
$lcLocalContactFolderid = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.DistinguishedFolderIdType$lcLocalContactFolderid.Id = [EWSUtil.EWS.DistinguishedFolderIdNameType]::contacts
$mbMailbox = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.EmailAddressType
$mbMailbox.EmailAddress = “
$dTypeFld.Mailbox = $mbMailbox
$lcLocalContacts = $ewc.getfolder($lcLocalContactFolderid)
If you want to target a Public folder it’s not just as easy as putting in the path to the folder we need to get the code to traverse that folder path and find the target folder. The method I use is to input a normal folder path the split this into an array and then starting at the root use a separate find folder on each parent folder in the dimensioning hierarchy this is a little hard to explain but the code explains it better.
$pfPublicFolderPath = "/PubContacts/SyncContacts"
$parentFolder = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.DistinguishedFolderIdType
$parentFolder.Id = [EWSUtil.EWS.DistinguishedFolderIdNameType]::publicfoldersroot
$fldarry = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.BaseFolderIdType[] 1
$fldarry[0] = $parentFolder
$rfRootFolder = $ewc.getFolder($fldarry)
$pfArray = $pfPublicFolderPath.Split("/")
$cfContactsFolder = $rfRootFolder[0]
for ($lint = 1; $lint -lt $pfArray.Length; $lint++) {
$cfContactsFolder = $ewc.FindSubFolder($cfContactsFolder, $pfArray[$lint]);
Once we have our target folder we can do a number of things before going into synchronization I want to show some easy code for creating contacts using EWS from Powershell. To create a contact we really only need a csv file with 2 columns one for the name and one for the emailAddress eg
Fred FlintStone,
Barney Rubble,
If you have a csv file that you want to import into a local users contacts folder first we need to create an Exchange Web Services Connection so we can use EWS and get the target folder as I’ve talked about above. Once this is done you can then read the csv file using the Import-csv powershell cmdlet. We then loop through each line of the csv file and create contacts from the information within. When creating a contact there are several properties you do need to set such as some Extended mapi properties that aren’t included in the EWS contactType class. These represent the displayName for emailaddress's also you need to make sure you set the FileAs and Subject properties so the contact will display correctly in Outlook and the address book. So the simplest code to create contacts from a 2 column csv file would look like (I’ve omitted the connect and folder find functions which I’ll include in the download im also splitting the name into to an array to fill in the firstname and surname properties).
import-csv $fnFileName | foreach-object{
$newcontact = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.ContactItemType
$namearray = $_.Name.split(" ")
$newcontact.GivenName = $namearray[0]
$newcontact.Surname = $namearray[1]
$newcontact.Subject = $_.Name
$newcontact.FileAs = $_.Name
$newcontact.DisplayName = $_.Name
$newcontact.EmailAddresses = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.EmailAddressDictionaryEntryType[] 1
$newcontact.EmailAddresses[0] = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.EmailAddressDictionaryEntryType
$newcontact.EmailAddresses[0].Key = [EWSUtil.EWS.EmailAddressKeyType]::EmailAddress1
$newcontact.EmailAddresses[0].Value = $_.EmailAddress

$dnEmailDisplayName1 = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.PathToExtendedFieldType
$dnEmailDisplayName1.DistinguishedPropertySetIdSpecified = $true
$dnEmailDisplayName1.DistinguishedPropertySetId = [EWSUtil.EWS.DistinguishedPropertySetType]::Address
$dnEmailDisplayName1.PropertyId = 32896
$dnEmailDisplayName1.PropertyIdSpecified = $true
$dnEmailDisplayName1.PropertyType = [EWSUtil.EWS.MapiPropertyTypeType]::String

$daEmailDisplayName1 = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.PathToExtendedFieldType
$daEmailDisplayName1.DistinguishedPropertySetIdSpecified = $true
$daEmailDisplayName1.DistinguishedPropertySetId = [EWSUtil.EWS.DistinguishedPropertySetType]::Address
$daEmailDisplayName1.PropertyId = 32900
$daEmailDisplayName1.PropertyIdSpecified = $true;
$daEmailDisplayName1.PropertyType = [EWSUtil.EWS.MapiPropertyTypeType]::String

$atEmailAddressType1 = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.PathToExtendedFieldType
$atEmailAddressType1.DistinguishedPropertySetIdSpecified = $true
$atEmailAddressType1.DistinguishedPropertySetId = [EWSUtil.EWS.DistinguishedPropertySetType]::Address
$atEmailAddressType1.PropertyId = 32898
$atEmailAddressType1.PropertyIdSpecified = $true;
$atEmailAddressType1.PropertyType = [EWSUtil.EWS.MapiPropertyTypeType]::String

$newcontact.ExtendedProperty = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.ExtendedPropertyType[] 3
$newcontact.ExtendedProperty[0] = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.ExtendedPropertyType
$newcontact.ExtendedProperty[0].ExtendedFieldURI = $dnEmailDisplayName1
$newcontact.ExtendedProperty[0].Item = $_.Name + " (" + $_.EmailAddress + ")"

$newcontact.ExtendedProperty[1] = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.ExtendedPropertyType
$newcontact.ExtendedProperty[1].ExtendedFieldURI = $daEmailDisplayName1
$newcontact.ExtendedProperty[1].Item = $_.EmailAddress

$newcontact.ExtendedProperty[2] = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.ExtendedPropertyType
$newcontact.ExtendedProperty[2].ExtendedFieldURI = $atEmailAddressType1
$newcontact.ExtendedProperty[2].Item = "SMTP"



Okay now we can create contacts syncronizing is just matter of using the same logic and adding some code that before creating the contacts checks to see if it exists and if it does then does a property level check of the contact and then updates any information that has changed or does nothing at all. To facilite this i've made a few changes to the code above first i've added a custom Mapi property to mark any contacts that are created with this process. then when it comes time to syncronise i have a function that first finds all the contacts that this process has created when (or if) it had run before. This function returns a Hashtable indexed by the Email address so it makes it easy to check if the contact has already been created and determines if the sync needs to be run for changed properties. On the back side contacts can also be deleted if they no longer exist in the file
So the Full sync,add,delete logic would look like
$_."E-mail Address"
if ($contactsHash.containskey($_."E-mail Address")){
"Address Exist Test Sync"
$dsContact = $contactsHash[$_."E-mail Address"]
$diffs = $ewc.DiffConact($newcontact,$dsContact)
if ($diffs.Count -ne 0){
"Number Changes Found " + $diffs.Count

$ewc.AddNewContact($newcontact,$cfContactsFolder.FolderId )

$diDelCollection = @()
$delitems = $false
foreach ($key in $contactsHash.Keys){
if ($fileContactsHash.ContainsKey($key) -eq $false){
$diDelCollection += $contactsHash[$key]
$delitems = $true

if ($delitems -eq $true){
$delbis = new-object EWSUtil.EWS.BaseItemIdType[] $diDelCollection.length
for($delint=0;$delint -lt [Int]$diDelCollection.length;$delint++){
$delbis[$delint] = $diDelCollection[$delint].ItemId}

"Items Deleted"
In the download i've create a sample that uses an Outlook Express Address Book csv Export with all the fields ticked that imports and syncronzes with a public Contacts folders as well as the Local contacts import sample I've talked about. I've put the download here. To use these scrripts you need to use the latest EWSUtil Powershell library which you can download from
For more information on using the library and connection and authentication options this is documented in another post