Friday, April 23, 2010

Flexible Exchange Contact creation script using Powershell import-csv and the EWS Managed API

Contacts can be a constant source or pain and target for automation within any Exchange environment because of our ever growing propensity to move, create ,import and export mailboxes as well as the ever growing list of mobile, tablet devices, social network sites and software that creates and distributes contacts in a wide variety of formats. If you have ever scripted contacts in Exchange because of the amount of properties and different formats of these properties you may have realized that writing a flexible reusable script can be challenge. These scripts tend to become long and messy which make them harder to reuse in varying situations. So my goal was to write something that first I could use easily to import contacts from a CSV file but also down the track tackle some Vcard import code I need to port across.

With Exchange contacts you have 5 distinct property groups you need to deal with in EWS

Normal (things like FirstName, LastName etc)
Phone (Mobile, Home Business etc)
Address (Home, Business, Other)
Email (3 different)
Extended Properties – (Any Mapi properties that aren’t provided by strongly-typed contact in EWS)

Each of these properties need to be set in their own unique way so to make using contacts easier I wanted a script that would essentially flatten out the process. Eg one method that can be used to set any property no matter how few or how many of the actual contact properties that I wanted to set. What I came up with to cater for this was first a instead of setting properties directly on the strongly-typed object I’ve used a Hashtable to store a custom object to act as an intermediary. This then allowed me to create a simple function to allow for setting each property

function SetProp([String]$Type,[Object]$Name,[Object]$Value){
$p1Prop1 = "" | select proptype,name,value
$p1Prop1.proptype = $Type
$p1Prop1.name = $Name
$p1Prop1.value = $Value
$ContactProps.Add($Name,$p1Prop1)
}

So the property Type would be one of the five types I’ve listed above the name would be the name of the property (or for the more complex name the name of the dictionary property and the actually property separated with a (.).)
This means when I want to set a normal property like first name I can use

SetProp "Normal" "GivenName" “Contacts First Name”

If I want to set the first Email address I would use

SetProp "Email" "EmailAddress1.Address" “User@emailaddress.com”

To set the Home address properties of a contact you need

SetProp "Address" "Home.City" "Blah Blah"
SetProp "Address" "Home.State" "NSW"
SetProp "Address" "Home.Street" "19 Blah Ave"
SetProp "Address" "Home.PostalCode" "2153"

For Extended properties it does require more the one line because the property does need to be defined for example to set the Pr_Gender property use

$gender = New-Object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ExtendedPropertyDefinition(14925,[Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.MapiPropertyType]::Short)
SetProp "Extended" $gender 2

Once all the properties are set you then call the CreateContact function which will then enumerate back through the Hashtable and has some logic that should then deal with the messiness of setting the actual strongly type object properties within a minimal amount of code.

Putting it to use

I built this script to do some hard work so the first task I had was create a bunch of different contacts within different public folders from different CSV files. The CSV file was pretty simple it had firstName , LastName, Company , EmailAddress . Powershell has a create CSV cmdlet called import-csv that make working with text file really easy so this solved that part easy. To create contact in a public folder I first need to find the EWSid of the folder in question. Fortunately I already had the code from another script. The finally script that did the Public Folder import from a CSV looked like the following. I've put a downlaod with a few different version of this here.

The script itself looks like.

### Contact Property List
###
### Normal : to Set eg SetProp "Normal" "GivenName" "MyfirstName"
### http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/microsoft.exchange.webservices.data.contact_members%28v=EXCHG.80%29.aspx
###
### Email : to Set eg SetProp "Email" "EmailAddress1.Address" "glenscales@yahoo.com"
### EmailAddress1.Address
### EmailAddress2.Address
### EmailAddress3.Address
### EmailAddress1.Name
### EmailAddress2.Name
### EmailAddress3.Name
###
### Phone : to Set eg SetProp SetProp "Phone" "MobilePhone" "2345234523"
### AssistantPhone The assistant's phone number.
### BusinessFax The business fax number.
### BusinessPhone The business phone number.
### BusinessPhone2 The second business phone number.
### Callback The callback number.
### CarPhone The car phone number.
### CompanyMainPhone The company's main phone number.
### HomeFax The home fax number.
### HomePhone The home phone number.
### HomePhone2 The second home phone number.
### Isdn The ISDN number.
### MobilePhone The mobile phone number.
### OtherFax An alternate fax number.
### OtherTelephone An alternate phone number.
### Pager The pager number.
### PrimaryPhone The primary phone number.
### RadioPhone The radio phone number.
### Telex The Telex number.
### TtyTddPhone The TTY/TTD phone number.
###
### Address : to Set eg SetProp SetProp "Address" "Business.City" "Sydney"
###
### Business.City
### Business.CountryOrRegion
### Business.PostalCode
### Business.State
### Business.Street
###
### Home.City
### Home.CountryOrRegion
### Home.PostalCode
### Home.State
### Home.Street
###
### Other.City
### Other.CountryOrRegion
### Other.PostalCode
### Other.State
### Other.Street
###
### Extended : to Set
###
### $AddressGuid = new-object Guid("00062004-0000-0000-C000-000000000046")
###
### $email1DisplayNameProp = New-Object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ExtendedPropertyDefinition($AddressGuid,32896, [Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.MapiPropertyType]::String)
### SetProp "Extended" $email1DisplayNameProp "Fredoo"
###
### $gender = New-Object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ExtendedPropertyDefinition(14925,[Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.MapiPropertyType]::Short)
### SetProp "Extended" $gender 2
###

$MailboxName = "user@domain.com"
$csvFile = "c:\allcustm.csv"

$AddressGuid = new-object Guid("00062004-0000-0000-C000-000000000046")
$dllpath = "C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange\Web Services\1.0\Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.dll"
[void][Reflection.Assembly]::LoadFile($dllpath)

function SetProp([String]$Type,[Object]$Name,[Object]$Value){
$p1Prop1 = "" | select proptype,name,value
$p1Prop1.proptype = $Type
$p1Prop1.name = $Name
$p1Prop1.value = $Value
$ContactProps.Add($Name,$p1Prop1)
}

Function FindTargetFolder([String]$FolderPath){
$tfTargetFolder = [Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.Folder]::Bind($service,[Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.WellKnownFolderName]::PublicFoldersRoot)
$pfArray = $FolderPath.Split("/")
for ($lint = 1; $lint -lt $pfArray.Length; $lint++) {
$pfArray[$lint]
$fvFolderView = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.FolderView(1)
$SfSearchFilter = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.SearchFilter+IsEqualTo([Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.FolderSchema]::DisplayName,$pfArray[$lint])
$findFolderResults = $service.FindFolders($tfTargetFolder.Id,$SfSearchFilter,$fvFolderView)
if ($findFolderResults.TotalCount -gt 0){
foreach($folder in $findFolderResults.Folders){
$tfTargetFolder = $folder
}
}
else{
"Error Folder Not Found"
$tfTargetFolder = $null
break
}
}
$Global:findFolder = $tfTargetFolder
}

function CreateContact($service,$ContactProps,$Folder){

$NewContact = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.Contact($service)

$ContactProps.GetEnumerator() | foreach-object {
$propName = $_.Value.name
$propValue = $_.Value.value
if ($_.Value.proptype -ne "Extended"){
$psplit = $propName.split(".")
$pval1 = $psplit[0]
$pval2 = $psplit[1]
}
Switch($_.Value.proptype){
"Normal" {$NewContact.$propName = $propValue}
"Email" {
if ($NewContact.EmailAddresses.Contains([Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.EmailAddressKey]::$pval1)){
$EmailEntry = $NewContact.EmailAddresses[[Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.EmailAddressKey]::$pval1]
}
else{
$EmailEntry = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.EmailAddress
}
$EmailEntry.$pval2 = $propValue
$NewContact.EmailAddresses[[Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.EmailAddressKey]::$pval1] = $EmailEntry
}
"Phone" {
$NewContact.PhoneNumbers[[Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.PhoneNumberKey]::$propName] = $propValue
}
"Address"{
if ($NewContact.PhysicalAddresses.Contains([Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.PhysicalAddressKey]::$pval1)){
$PhysicalAddressEntry = $NewContact.PhysicalAddresses[[Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.PhysicalAddressKey]::$pval1]
}
else{
$PhysicalAddressEntry = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.PhysicalAddressEntry
}
$PhysicalAddressEntry.$pval2 = $propValue
$NewContact.PhysicalAddresses[[Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.PhysicalAddressKey]::$pval1] = $PhysicalAddressEntry
}
"Extended" {
$NewContact.SetExtendedProperty($propName,$propValue)
}


}
}
$NewContact.Save($Global:findFolder.Id)
"Contact Created : " + $NewContact.FileAs
$Global:newContact = $NewContact
}


$service = New-Object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ExchangeService([Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ExchangeVersion]::Exchange2007_SP1)

$windowsIdentity = [System.Security.Principal.WindowsIdentity]::GetCurrent()
$sidbind = "LDAP://<SID=" + $windowsIdentity.user.Value.ToString() + ">"
$aceuser = [ADSI]$sidbind

$service.AutodiscoverUrl($aceuser.mail.ToString())


$folderid = FindTargetFolder ("/folder1/folder2")

$ContactProps = @{ }


import-csv $csvFile | foreach-object {
$ContactProps.Clear()
SetProp "Normal" "GivenName" $_.FirstName
SetProp "Normal" "Surname" $_.LastName
$fileasName = $_.FirstName + "," + $_.LastName
SetProp "Normal" "Subject" $fileasName
SetProp "Normal" "FileAs" $fileasName
SetProp "Normal" "CompanyName" $_.Company
SetProp "Email" "EmailAddress1.Address" $_.Email
CreateContact $service $ContactProps

}

Friday, April 16, 2010

Creating a Pin to Top Email in Outlook using the EWS managed API and Powershell

In such an imperfect world in which we live coming up with different ways to look at seemingly ignorable problems can sometime be at the heart of innovation. It always strikes me a little odd that while the systems around the our inbox’s have grown and changed over’s the years there has always been a deficit in change around the way information is presented to us in that Inbox folder structure and the way in which a person can flexibly control the operation of how information is presented. In 2010 the new conversation view is a good step forward and some nice eye candy with its ability to group messages within a conversation. However for me this feels a little short of how one would intuitively look at a conversation. Eg a true conversation view would be able to explode the email conversation into conservatory elements rather than just grouping the emails together and asking me to do all the handwork. The problem with the later is it becomes another poweruser function useful to all but little used do to a lack of understanding in the user community. (But you can’t win look at the poor old clippy’s much maligned attempts to better educate users).

One area the pain of this verbiage originates from is the easy and frequency that many applications use email alerts and warning (it just so easy to put an alerting module in). As we fill our infrastructures and even clouds with monitoring and alerting systems are mailboxes in tern start to fill with output of these systems an increasing amount of malaise sets in. While the content of such alerts is useful in nature the size of frequency of this over a long period of time means the meaning of such alerts dissipates and rule redirections and other efforts people use to control the flow of these can create more problems with storage and invalidating the real meaning of these alert messages. So the idea behind this script and method was to look at ways of better using email based alerts within a current email environment.

So first for each alert I received I only wanted 1 email per day to represent this eg if your monitoring the event logs of large number of servers having one email that would float at the top of your mailbox and update itself anytime a important error that need investigation happened was what I really wanted. Essentially something that would pin itself on top of my other messages as some sort of reinforcement that this was important. But when you think about it this idea is applicable outside just the area of alerts you could use it for anything where you getting email based updates eg you could use it to create a pin to email that contained the movement of a particular stock price. So at the end of the week you would have 7 messages in your inbox with the movements of the stock price during that particular day and if it was important that you knew each time there was a big movement the current email would get updated and float to the top of you inbox and mark itself as unread. So look there is still some space for innovation and creative thinking in the realm boxed in software infrastructure.

So to deliver this I’ve created a EWS Managed API script that saves the changekey of the current message that it’s following as the postto message (if it exists else it will create it). Once a new update comes in it will update the body of the message with the text of the new event and change the received date and read properties which will cause the email to appear at the top of a folder. To allow the message to expire there is a search filter that only looks for message based on a creation time (not the update time).

To use the script you need to pass it the mailbox name to execute against and the text for the alert eg

./pinto.ps1 mailbox@domain.com “This is Alert Blah Blah Balh”

This is just a warning this is has no real testing and I’m not sure what it would do to archiving system (should be okay).

I’ve put a download of the code here the script itself looks like

$MailboxName = $args[0]
$MessageText = $args[1]
$MessageSubject = "Pin To Note Subject"

$expire = [DateTime]::Now.AddDays(-1)
if (Test-Path pifile.txt){
$pmailid = gc pifile.txt -totalcount 1
}
else{
$pmailid = "3B"
}
if ($pmailid -eq $null){$pmailid = "3B"}
$pmailid
function ConvertToByteArray($newString){

$byteArray = New-Object byte[] ($newString.length/2)
for($icnt=0;$icnt-lt$newString.length;$icnt=$icnt+2){
if ($icnt -eq 0){$byteArray[$icnt] = [Convert]::ToInt32($newString.SubString($icnt,2).tolower(), 16)}
else{$byteArray[($icnt/2)] = [Convert]::ToInt32($newString.SubString($icnt,2).tolower(), 16)}
}
return $byteArray

}

function CovertToHex($BinArray1){
$hexOut = ""
for($bc=0;$bc -lt $BinArray1.Length;$bc++){
$nhex = [Convert]::ToString($BinArray1[$bc], 16)
if ($nhex.length -eq 1){$nhex = "0" + $nhex}
$hexOut = $hexOut + $nhex
}
return $hexOut
}



$dllpath = "C:\Program Files\Microsoft\Exchange\Web Services\1.0\Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.dll"
[void][Reflection.Assembly]::LoadFile($dllpath)
$service = New-Object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ExchangeService([Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ExchangeVersion]::Exchange2007_SP1)

$windowsIdentity = [System.Security.Principal.WindowsIdentity]::GetCurrent()
$sidbind = "LDAP://<SID=" + $windowsIdentity.user.Value.ToString() + ">"
$aceuser = [ADSI]$sidbind

$service.AutodiscoverUrl($aceuser.mail.ToString())

$PrSearchKey = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ExtendedPropertyDefinition(12299, [Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.MapiPropertyType]::Binary);
$PR_Client_Submit_Time = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ExtendedPropertyDefinition(57, [Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.MapiPropertyType]::SystemTime);
$PR_Delivery_Time = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ExtendedPropertyDefinition(3590, [Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.MapiPropertyType]::SystemTime);
$PR_Flags = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ExtendedPropertyDefinition(3591, [Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.MapiPropertyType]::Integer);

$Propset = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.PropertySet([Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.BasePropertySet]::FirstClassProperties)
$Propset.Add($PR_Client_Submit_Time)
$Propset.Add($PR_Delivery_Time)
$Propset.Add($PrSearchKey)
$Propset.Add($PR_Flags)
$Propset.RequestedBodyType = [Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.BodyType]::Text

$Sfir = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.SearchFilter+IsEqualTo($PrSearchKey, [Convert]::ToBase64String((ConvertToByteArray($pmailId))))
$Sflt = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.SearchFilter+IsGreaterThan([Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ItemSchema]::DateTimeReceived, $expire)

$sfCollection = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.SearchFilter+SearchFilterCollection([Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.LogicalOperator]::And)

$sfCollection.add($Sfir)
$sfCollection.add($Sflt)


$view = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ItemView(1)

$folderid = new-object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.FolderId([Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.WellKnownFolderName]::Inbox,$MailboxName)
$InboxFolder = [Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.Folder]::Bind($service,$folderid)

$frFolderResult = $InboxFolder.FindItems($sfCollection,$view)
if ($frFolderResult.Items.Count -ne 0){
"Item Found"
$frFolderResult.Items[0].load($Propset)
$frFolderResult.Items[0].Body.Text
$frFolderResult.Items[0].ExtendedProperties[0].Value = [DateTime]::Now
$frFolderResult.Items[0].ExtendedProperties[1].Value = [DateTime]::Now
$frFolderResult.Items[0].Body.Text = $frFolderResult.Items[0].Body.Text + $MessageText + "`r`n"
$frFolderResult.Items[0].isread = $false
$frFolderResult.Items[0].Update([Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ConflictResolutionMode]::AlwaysOverwrite)
}
else{
"Item Not found"
$message = New-Object Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.EmailMessage($service)
$message.From = $MailboxName
$message.ToRecipients.Add($MailboxName)
$message.Subject = $MessageSubject
$message.Body = $MessageText + "`r`n"
$message.SetExtendedProperty($PR_Flags,"1")
$message.isread = $false
$message.save($InboxFolder.Id)
$message.load($Propset)
$message.ExtendedProperties[0].Value = [DateTime]::Now
$message.ExtendedProperties[1].Value = [DateTime]::Now
$message.Update([Microsoft.Exchange.WebServices.Data.ConflictResolutionMode]::AlwaysOverwrite)
CovertToHex($message.ExtendedProperties[2].Value) | out-file pifile.txt
}